Art Terminology – a glossary — ModernArts


Art in which there is no concrete object, but rather a series of events performed by the artist in front of an audience, possibly including âm thanh, sight gags, recitation, audio-visual presentations, or other elements .


The representation of three-dimensional objects on a flat surface so sánh as béo produce the same impression of distance & relative kích cỡ as that received by the human eye. In one-point linear perspective, developed during the fifteenth century, all parallel lines in a given visual field converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon. In aerial or atmospheric perspective, the relative distance of objects is indicated by gradations of tone và màu và by variations in the clarity of outlines .


A painting & drawing wooden love sign
of the mid đôi mươi th century in which people, objects, và scenes are depicted with such naturalism that the paintings resemble photographs – an almost exact visual duplication of the subject .


The illusory space in a painting or other work of two-dimensional art that seems phệ recede backward into depth from the picture plane, giving the illusion of distance .


An imaginary flat surface that is assumed mập be identical béo the surface of a painting. Forms in a painting meant béo be perceived in deep three-dimensional space are said Khủng be “ behind ” the picture plane. The picture plane is commonly associated with the foreground of a painting .


A coloring substance made from plants, earth, or minerals và may include other synthetic elements. When mixed with binders it becomes paint, ink or crayon, etc .


A branch of French Impressionism in which the principle of optical mixture or broken màu was carried lớn the extreme of applying màu sắc in tiny dots or small, isolated strokes. Forms are visible in a pointillist painting only from a distance, when the viewer’s eye blends the colors béo create visual masses & outlines. The inventor và chief exponent of pointillism was George Seurat ( 1859 – 1891 ) ; the other leading figure was Paul Signac ( 1863 – 1935 ) .


Having many colors, as opposed lớn monochromatic which means only one hue or màu sắc .


A style derived from commercial art forms & characterized by larger than life replicas of items from mass culture. This style evolved in the late 1950 s & was characterized in the 1960 s by such artists as Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Claus Oldenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg, George Segal, & Robert Indiana .


A ceramic ware fired bự the highest temperature ranges và often used for dinnerware, vases, và smaller sculpture .


The space in a painting occupied by the object depicted ( not the spaces in-between objects )


A term applied phệ the work of several artists – French or living in France – from about 1885 phệ 1900. Although they all painted in highly personal styles, the Post-Impressionists were united in rejecting the relative absence of khung characteristic of Impressionism & stressed more formal qualities và the significance of subject matter .


Art forms predating recorded history, such as Old, Middle, & New Stone Ages .


Art created in the America’s by native people that pre-dates the discovery of the mới ra world


Any hue that, in theory, cannot be created by a mixture of any other hues. Varying combinations of the primary hues can be used lớn create all the other hues of the spectrum. In pigment the primaries are red, yellow, và xanh .


An image created from a master wood block, stone, plate, or màn hình hiển thị, usually on paper. Prints are referred phệ as multiples, because as a rule many identical or similar impressions are made from the same printing surface, the number of impressions being called an edition. When an edition is limited phệ a specified number of prints, it is a limited edition. A print is considered an original work of art & today is customarily signed & numbered by the artist .


1. Paintings & drawings of & by peoples & races outside the influence of accepted Western styles .2. Religious portrayals predating scientific studies of perspective và anatomy .tam. Intuitive artists with a ” naive ” style often due béo little, if any, training ( or works intentionally made lớnlook this way ) .


Size relationships between parts of a whole, or between two or more objects perceived as a unit .



Any art in which the goal is lớn portray forms in the natural world in a highly representational manner. Specifically, an art style of the mid 19 th century, which fostered the idea that everyday people và events are worthy subjects for important art .


Objects appear smaller as their distance from the viewer increases .


We view nature from our own eye màn chơi. Objects in the foreground appear lower và distant objects appear higher relative Khủng the imaginary line created by our cấp độ of sight .


1. Sculpture in which figures or other images are attached mập a flat background but project out from it phệ some degree ( bas-relief, haut-relief ). 2. A printmaking technique in which portions of a block meant béo be printed are raised above the surface .


Literally, “ rebirth ”. The period in Europe from the 14 th bự the 16 th century, characterized by a renewed interest in Classical art, architecture, literature, và philosophy. The Renaissance began in Italy & gradually spread béo the rest of Europe. In art, it is most closely associated with Leonardo gia Vinci, Michelangelo, và Raphael .


Works of art that closely resemble forms in the natural world. Synonymous with naturalistic


A style of art popular in Europe in the first three quarters of the 18 th century, Rococo architecture và furnishings emphasized ornate but small-scale decoration, curvilinear forms, và pastel colors. Rococo painting has a playful, light-hearted lãng mạn unique & often pictures the aristocracy at leisure .


A style of architecture & art dominant in Europe from the 9 th bự the 12 th century. Romanesque architecture, based on ancient Roman precedents, emphasizes the màn arch & barrel vault .



A movement in Western art of the 19 th century generally assumed mập be in opposition béo Neoclassicism. Romantic works are marked by intense colors, turbulent emotions, complex composition, soft outlines, và sometimes heroic subject matter .


1. Fashionable gathering of artists, writers, và intellectuals held in a private trang chủ .2. In France, a state-sponsored exhibition of art, held in Paris, controlled by theAcademy of Fine Arts .


Size in relation Khủng some “ normal ” or constant kích thước. Compare with proportion .


A three-dimensional size modeled, carved, or assembled .


A hue created by combining two primary colours, as yellow & xanh mixed together yield green. In pigment the secondary colors are orange, green, & violet .


Serigraphy is a màu stencil printing process in which a special paint is forced through a fine màn hình hiển thị onto the paper beneath. Areas that bởi vì not print are blocked with photo sensitive emulsion that has been exposed with high intensity arc lights. A squeegee is pulled from back mập front, producing a direct transfer of the image from màn hình hiển thị mập paper. A separate stencil is required for each màu sắc và one hundred colors or more may be necessary Khủng achieve the desired effect. A serigraph, also referred mập as a màn hình hiển thị print, differs from other graphics in that its màu sắc is made up of paint films rather than printing ink stains. This technique is extremely versatile, & can create effects similar phệ oil màu sắc & transparent washes, as well as gouache & pastel .


From the Italian work for “ smoke, ” a technique of painting in thin glazes bự achieve a hazy, cloudy atmosphere, often phệ represent objects or landscape meant bự be perceived as distant from the picture plane .


A two-dimensional area having identifiable boundaries, created by lines, màu sắc, or value changes, or some combination of these ; broadly, size .


The tendency of complementary colors phệ seem brighter và more intense when placed side by side .


The outer shape of an object. An outline, often filled in with màu .


A preliminary drawing of a composition .


In painting, space may by defined as the distances between shapes on a flat surface & the illusion of three-dimensions on a two-dimensional surface. Also refers lớn a physical site where art is displayed for viewing .


A painting or other two-dimensional work in which the subject matter is an arrangement of objects – fruit, flowers, tableware, pottery, và so sánh forth – brought together for their pleasing contrasts of shape, màu, & texture, Also the arrangement of the objects itself .


A pattern of closely spaced dots or small marks used béo create a sense of three-dimensionally on a flat surface, especially in drawing và printmaking. See also hatching, cross-hatching .


A detailed drawing or painting made of one or more parts of a final composition, but not the whole work .


A characteristic, or a number of characteristics that we can identify as constant, recurring, or coherent. In art, the sum of such characteristics associated with a particular artist, nhóm, or culture, or with an artist’s work at a specific thời gian .


Descriptive of works based on forms in the natural world, but simplified or distorted for kiến thiết purposes. See also abstract .


The surface on which a work of two-dimensional art is made i. e. : canvas, paper, cardboard, or wood .


A painting style of the early trăng tròn th century that emphasized imagery và visions from dreams & fantasies, as well as an intuitive, spontaneous method of recording such imagery, often combining unrelated or unexpected objects in compositions .


An image or sign that represents something else, because of convention, association, or resemblance .


Descriptive of a kiến thiết in which the two halves of a composition on either side of an imaginary central vertical axis correspond mập one another in kích thước, shape, và placement .


A unique which refers bự the sense of touch .


A type of weaving in which the crosswise yarns are manipulated freely béo create patterned or pictorial effects .


A painting medium in which the binder is egg yolk .


Six colors positioned between the primary và secondary colors on the màu sắc wheel .


The actual feel ( roughness or smoothness ) of a surface. In art, texture may refer mập the illusion of roughness or smoothness often achieved with contrasting patterns .


A three-part work of art ; especially a painting, meant for placement on an altar, with three panels that fold together .


The overall màu effect in terms of hue và value. Often one dominating hue is employed in various shades và values .


A French term meaning ” deception of the eye. ” A painting or other work of two-dimensional art rendered in such a photographically realistic manner as lớn ‘ trick ’ the viewer into thinking it is three-dimensional reality .


The traditional stage in oil painting of using a monochrome or chết màu as a base for composition. Also known as laying in .


The relative lightness or darkness of a hue, or of a neutral varying from Trắng lớn đen .


In linear perspective, the point on the horizon line where parallel lines appear Khủng converge .


The entire liquid contents of a paint .


A line from top phệ bottom or bottom bự top. upright .


Similar mập mass, a three-dimensional size implying bulk, mật độ trùng lặp từ khóa, và weight ; but also a void or empty, enclosed space .


Thos e which suggest a sense of warmth i. e. : red, yellow và orange .


Used in watercolor painting, brush drawing, và occasionally in oil painting và sculpture bự describe a broad thin layer of diluted pigment, ink, glaze or patina. Also refers béo a drawing made in this technique .



A painting medium in which the binder is gum arabic. Water is used phệ thinning, lightening or mixing .


This effect on oil paintings is usually caused by one of three reasons : excessive use of linseed oil medium ; applying any of the varnishes that are prone lớn yellow with age ; or most often – an accumulation of dirt embedded into the varnish .

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